Research interests in the Glass Lab integrate field and laboratory studies to explore connections between major and trace elements in biogeochemical cycles. The major focus of our research is characterizing novel biological and abiotic mechanisms of greenhouse gas cycling, with particular focus on methane and nitrous oxide, by coupling tools from geochemistry and molecular biology. A major focus of current research is habitability and biosignatures of gas hydrates, extreme environments that are widespread in the solar system and could serve as refugia for deep subsurface microbes on Mars and icy moons. Ongoing work explores how methane and nitrous oxide sustained ancient microbial ecosystems, warmed the early Earth, and fueled the first anaerobic respiratory systems in the presence of abundant iron on Earth’s surface during the first half of Earth’s history.